Category: English

“Undoubtedly, the correct geographical term in history is the Persian Gulf,”

 8 May 2012
“The correct terminology(Persian gulf) is an emotional issue for many Iranians.
Keeping the world’s most vital oil-exporting waterway named “Persian” is a national touchstone and highly emotive issue for Iranians.

So there has been widespread anger in Iran in recent days after internet users spotted that Google Maps now has no name on the body of water that Iran insists must be called the Persian Gulf and nothing else.
Iran sees the web giant’s omission as a politically-motivated attack.
“The efforts of [global] arrogance [America] and its Arab allies to remove the name of Persian Gulf will result in its name becoming more durable,” said Bahman Dorri, a senior official in Iran’s ministry of culture and Islamic guidance.
The waterway also touches Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar and Bahrain – the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) that call it the Arabian Gulf.
“Google fabricating lies will not have any outcome but for its users to lose trust in the data it provides,” Mr Dorri said.
“Documents in the UN and UNESCO show the name of this body of water has been Persian Gulf since a long time ago.”
A number of Iranians have posted on Twitter a link to Google Maps demanding “Where’s the Persian Gulf?”
دانشگاه جواهر لعل نهرو
The name dispute flares periodically, but the latest spat comes at a time of increasing tension between Iran and its Arab Gulf neighbours.
Iran’s president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, infuriated the GCC last month by visiting Abu Musa, one of three tiny Gulf islands whose ownership is claimed by both Iran and the UAE. Iran believes there has been a pan-Arabist campaign since the 1950s, led by the then Egyptian president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, and later by the Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein, to call the waterway the Ara bian Gulf. At the height of the Persian empire of Darius and Xerxes the Great, ancient Greek writers called the stretch of water the Persian Gulf, and the name has stuck ever since.
Today, the UN refers to it as the Persian Gulf, as does the UK and the US, although the US Navy, which has extensive dealings with Arab Gulf states, mostly uses Ara bian Gulf.
“Undoubtedly, the correct geographical term in history is the Persian Gulf,” Sir Richard Dalton, a British former ambassador to Iran and senior fellow at the Chatham House think tank, said. “Iran recognises it’s largely international waters and they’re not laying claim to it as part of their territory in terms of hydrocarbon resources and so on.
“The correct terminology is an emotional issue for many Iranians. The British don’t mind the French calling the English channel La Manche, but Iran just doesn’t see it that way.”
In 2010, Iran warned that airlines using Arabian Gulf on in-flight monitors would be barred from Iranian airspace.
Google’s attempt to avoid controversy by simply not naming the waterway follows equally unsuccessful efforts by foreign news organisations and other bodies not to ruffle Iranian or Arab feathers.
In 2004, National Geographic published a world atlas that, while acknowledging the waterway’s primary name as the Persian Gulf added Arabian Gulf in brackets.
Tehran banned the American-owned magazine and its reporters from visiting Iran.
Published on Tuesday 8 May 2012 02:30
Oxford University Press Apologizes to Iran for Persian Gulf Misnomer
TEHRAN (FNA)- The Oxford University Press in a letter extended an apology to Tehran for its mistaken use of a false name to refer to ‘the Persian Gulf’ in its Bright Star Pupil’s Book 4, stressing that any reference will be deleted in future prints. nast.chalighraphi
The Oxford University Press said its editorial board agreed that reference to the so-called Arabian Gulf, instead of the correct name Persian Gulf, needed to be removed from its Bright Star Pupil’s Book 4 and that it will ensure any reference is deleted in future prints.
“On behalf of Oxford University Press, I would like to apologize for the inaccuracy in this usage,” Group Communications Director Anna Baldwin said.
“Oxford University Press strives towards excellence in scholarship and accuracy in all our facts,” Baldwin told Cultural Counselor of the Iranian Embassy in London in a letter.
She said that OUP’s in-house editorial guidelines on appropriate nomenclature were already correct about the accuracy of Persian Gulf, but that she “ensure the guidelines are re-circulated to avoid such an error re-occurring.”
The Persian Gulf was the historical name of the waterway “used over two millenniums ago by the ancient Greeks as Sinus Persicus as recorded by renowned Greek historians/geographers and then by the Romans as Mare Persicum”, 
While historical documents show that the waterway has always been referred to as the ‘Persian Gulf’,even by Arabs,  certain government  deliberately or mistakenly remove the word ‘Persian’ from the name of the waterway.
Iran designated April 30 as the National Persian Gulf Day to highlight the fact that the waterway has been referred to by all  historians and ancient texts as ‘Persian’ since the Achaemenid Empire was established in what is now modern day Iran.
In July 2009, archeological excavations in the Iranian port city of Siraf yielded new evidence confirming the antiquity of the Persian Gulf title.
The Iranian archeologists discovered Sassanid and early-Islamic residential strata as well as a number of intact amphoras used in sea trade during the Parthian, Abbasid and early Islamic eras, all referring to the waterway as the Persian Gulf.


“From a historical point of view, it has been called the Persian Gulf since Alexander the Great”

Abdel Khaleq Al-Janabi is a Saudi history scholar.

From a scientific and historical point of view, it has been called the Persian Gulf since Alexander the Great. [It has also had other names, such as the ‘sea of the south’ and the ‘sea of Bassora’]. It’s this name that has been retained by history books and Arab historians, like Ibn Khaldoun and Ibn al-Athir. It’s also in treaties signed between the governors of the gulf and the British who dominated the region from the beginning of the 20th century.

Things didn’t change until Nasser came to power and the rise of Arab nationalism. The Arabs then began to use the name “Ara- bian Gulf” – even though in the beginning of Nasser’s mandate, a popular slogan went: ‘One sole nation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf’


It’s true that the name of this gulf still stirs a lively argument. But, as a history scholar, I can’t support nationalistic slogans. To say, like some Arabs, that the Romans already called it the ‘Arabian Gulf’ is without foundation. Only the Greek historian Strabon, in the 1st century AD, had used the term ‘Arabian Gulf’ while talking about the strip of water that we today call the the Red Sea”. Abdel Khaleq Al-Janabi, a Saudi historian said “[f]rom a scientific and historical point of view, it has been called the Persian Gulf since Alexander the Great” and that it was “without foundation” to claim Romans named it “Arabian Gulf”. “Things didn’t change untilNasser came to power and the rise of Arab nationalism. The Arabs then began to use the name ‘Arabian Gulf’,” he added.
The Persian Gulf has been so known since the 5th century BC.

Iran has threatened to sue search engine Google over omitting the name ‘Persian Gulf’ on its Google Maps service. Iranian foreign ministry spokesman Ramin Mehmanparast said that, if Google did not restore the name of the Persian Gulf – the body of water between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula – it would face ‘serious damages’. Mr Mehmanparast told the semi-official Mehr news agency today that Tehran had already warned Google of possible legal action.

Gulf of 'omit': Google Maps does not name the Persian Gulf, the body of water between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. But the Gulf of Oman is labelledGulf of ‘omit’: Google Maps does not name the Persian Gulf, the body of water between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. But the Gulf of Oman is labelled
What's in a name? Wikipedia's map of the same area has the Persian Gulf clearly labelled, as well as the Strait of HormuzWhat’s in a name? Wikipedia’s map of the same area has the Persian Gulf clearly labelled, as well as the Strait of Hormuz

He said: ‘Toying with modern technologies in political issues is among the new measures by the enemies against Iran, [and] in this regard, Google has been treated as a plaything.’ But Google reacted to the comments, saying that its maps service had never labelled the Persian Gulf. When asked by MailOnline if Google planned to include the title in the wake of Iranian threats, a spokesman said there were no plans to include the title on any amended map. A separate company insider told Mail Online that it was ‘definitely not’ a political decision not to have Persian Gulf on Google maps, and Iran’s assertion that Google had had the label removed was ‘simply wrong’.

It's there if you really look: Typing 'Persian Gulf' into Google Maps an then clicking on the resulting 'A' marker will bring up the body of water's titleIt’s there if you really look: Typing ‘Persian Gulf’ into Google Maps an then clicking on the resulting ‘A’ marker will bring up the body of water’s title
He added that, even in the wake of the Iranian threats, there were no plans to include the Persian Gulf label on Google maps.

And he said that the label Persian Gulf AND Arabian Gulf were included in the more detailed Google Earth app. Iranians are highly sensitive about the name of the body of water, which has historically and internationally been known as the Persian Gulf. Some Arab states insist on calling it the Arabian Gulf. The issue has stirred up tensions between Iranians and Arabs. Typing Persian Gulf into Google Maps takes users to the body of water in question, and clicking on the red ‘A’ marker shows ‘Persian Gulf’ as the address.

The Persian Gulf has been so known since the 5th century BC, when Darius the Great of the Achaemenid dynasty called the body of water ‘The sea which goes from Persian’. Around the same time, Greek writers also called it ‘Persikonkaitas’, meaning Persian Gulf. Other names have included ‘Persicus Sinus’, ‘Aquarius Persico’, ‘Bahr-i-Fars’, ‘Daryaye-i-Fars’, ‘Khalij al-‘Ajami’ and ‘Khalij-i Fars’ – all translating into Persian Gulf or Persian Sea. During the time of the Ottoman Empire, it was sometimes referred to as ‘Basra Kurfuzi’, meaning the Gulf of Basra – but it was only during the rise of Arab nationalism in the 1960s that the name become disputed. The United Nations has requested that only the term Persian Gulf be used to describe or name the body of water, confirmed most recently as the official title of the body of water at the 23rd session of the UN in 2006.

sweeping exercise in Persian Gulf

خبرنگار بی بی سی ورلد  اینبار مثل بچه آدم در گزارش خود تقریبا همه  جا عبارت پرشن/پرژن گلف را بکار برد

قبلا فقط گلف بکار می برد.بخش جهانی بی بی سی گزارش کرده است رزمایش مین روبان از چهل کشور جهان از جمله بریتانیا در خلیج پارس در چند هفته آینده آغاز می شود. بیش از 6500 پرسنل نظامی در این رزمایش (مانور) شرکت خواهند کرد.

: ویدیو:

On board during mine-sweeping exercise in Persian Gulf

15 May 2013 Last updated at 15:27 GMTHelp

The largest international anti-mine warfare exercise is taking place in the Persian gulf over the next few weeks.

More than 6,500 military personnel from more than 40 countries are involved, along with 35 warships, including several from Britain’s Royal Navy.

The exercise will be conducted close to the Strait of Hormuz – the narrow shipping channel that passes Iran.

Iran, which has in the past threatened to block the gulf, says it is closely monitoring the exercise.

The BBC’s defence correspondent Jonathan Beale reports.

Persian Gulf the troubledدانشگاه جواهر لعل نهرو water

moderation is an approach based on realism, self­-confidence

common problem common solution

Foreign policy is a critical component in the lives, conduct, and governance of all nation-states. But it has become even more significant in recent years as interstate relations have grown ever more complex. The inexorable rise in the number of international players — including multilateral organizations, nonstate actors, and even individuals — has further complicated policymaking. Meanwhile, the ongoing process of globalization — however conceived and defined, whether lauded or despised — has brought its inescapable weight to bear on the foreign policies of all states, whether large or small, developed or developing.


Since its establishment by a popular revolution in 1979, the Islamic Republic of Iran has grappled with these challenges. The postrevolutionary foreign policy of Iran has been based on a number of cherished ideals and objectives embedded in the country’s constitution. These include the preservation of Iran’s independence, territorial integrity, and national security and the achievement of long-term, sustainable national development. Beyond its borders, Iran seeks to enhance its regional and global stature; to promote its ideals, including Islamic democracy; to expand its bilateral and multilateral relations, particularly with neighboring Muslim-majority countries and nonaligned states; to reduce tensions and manage disagreements with other states; to foster peace and security at both the regional and the international levels through positive engagement; and to promote international understanding through dialogue and cultural interaction.


Since the end of the Cold War and the demise of the bipolar world in the early 1990s, the global order has undergone a major structural transformation. But a firm new order has not yet emerged. As was the case during other transitions in the past, the fluid, complex, and uncertain state of international affairs today is extremely perilous and challenging. Previous transitions were usually complicated by military rivalries and even outright war among the dominant powers of the time. Today’s rivalries are similarly quite intense. However, due to a number of factors — the substantially changed global environment, changes in the nature of power, and the diversity and multiplicity of state and nonstate actors — competition these days mostly takes a nonmilitary form.

In Iran’s view, the nuclear crisis is wholly manufactured and therefore reversible.

The concept of power itself, traditionally measured in terms of military might, has changed substantially. New forms of influence — economic, technological, and cultural — have emerged. Concurrently, changes at the conceptual level have brought the cultural, normative, and ideational components of power to the fore, making power more accessible to a larger pool of actors. Moreover, the gradual rise of multilateralism in the wake of World War II has elevated the importance of international norms and consensus.

Despite such substantial changes in the architecture of the world order, remnants and beneficiaries of the old order have tried to salvage the wreckage of the past. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the emergence in the United States of apocalyptic theories declaring “the end of history” or a “clash of civilizations” represented a hasty reaction to the enemy vacuum created by the end of the Cold War and to the rising status of Muslims on the global stage. Through a series of subsequent Islamophobic campaigns — sometimes promoted as official state policy and perpetuated systematically in various forms and guises — some in the West tried to depict the Islamic community as a new ideological enemy on a global scale.

But rather than experiencing a divergence, the world is now moving toward a state of mutual interdependence. Contrary to the situation in the past, the pursuit of go-it-alone policies by former hegemons or current powers has led to a state of impasse and paralysis. Today, most nation-states, regardless of their size, power, influence, or other attributes, have come to realize that isolationism, whether voluntary or imposed, is neither a virtue nor an advantage. Collective action and cooperation have become the hallmarks of the era.

Multilateralism, the collective search for common solutions to common problems, has proved its desirability and practical efficacy at both the regional and the global levels. Even major world powers have learned the hard way that they can no longer pursue their interests or achieve their particular goals unilaterally. The gradual yet growing trend of coalition-making, at the regional and global levels, both for short-term purposes and for more enduring enterprises, bears witness to the inescapability of collective action. Willful cooperation has gradually developed as a new working pattern of interaction among states; it has come to replace the once predominant and now discredited pattern of confrontation, unconditional subservience, and perpetual rivalry.

As an inevitable consequence of globalization and the ensuing rise of collective action and cooperative approaches, the idea of seeking or imposing zero-sum games has lost its luster. Still, some actors cling to their old habits and habitually pursue their own interests at the expense of others. The insistence of some major powers on playing zero-sum games with win-lose outcomes has usually led to lose-lose outcomes for all the players involved.

The much-challenged position of the United States in the world today, notwithstanding its preponderance of military power, is a glaring case in point. The actual situation in various parts of the world where the United States is directly involved, most notably in the greater Middle East and in Iran’s immediate neighborhood, points to Washington’s reluctant but unmistakable turn to the path of coalition building with other global powers and even regional actors. China, India, and Russia are engaged in intense competition, primarily with the Western bloc, in a concerted effort to secure more prominent global roles. However, major powers and emerging powers alike are now loath to use military means to resolve rivalries, differences, or even disputes.

This has led to the gradual rise of a revisionist approach to foreign policy. Nation-states, regardless of their current position and power, now seek to enhance their stature and achieve their goals through a carefully balanced combination of cooperation and competition. The deadly rivalries of the past, a function of brute force and hard power, have gradually given way to cultural, normative, and ideational forms of competition. The uncertainty produced by the current transition in global norms and behavior also has a downside. If states miscalculate their own power or misperceive the capabilities and intentions of others, it could prove extremely costly to all involved. The intrinsic riskiness of this state of affairs calls for governments to rely on more objective analysis and to make careful assessments of their own positions and capabilities as well as of the intentions and possible conduct of others.

All states can take advantage of this transitional stage to advance their positions and further their interests. Governments must make realistic calculations about their own relative advantages and vulnerabilities and, most important, articulate clear sets of objectives and plans. Over the past few decades, especially since the end of the Cold War, states that have pursued clearly articulated foreign policies have been the most successful in advancing their regional and global positions; those that have lacked an understanding of the global environment and pursued policies based on miscalculations and misjudgments have either lost their previous positions or become marginalized.


As a solid regional power in this era of intense transition in global politics, Iran stands in a unique position. Given its large landmass and unique geographic position along the east–west transit route, Iran, since antiquity, has enjoyed a preeminent position in its region and beyond. Although Iran’s civilization and cultural heritage have remained intact, its political and economic fortunes have fluctuated periodically, depending on, among other things, its governance at home and its relations with the outside world. The victory of the 1979 revolution, a popular, nationwide, antimonarchical uprising with a mixture of republican and Islamic traits, contributed to the establishment of a new revolutionary order in the country. The repercussions were drastic, and the revolution deeply affected the country’s foreign relations, not only in its immediate neighborhood but also throughout the greater Middle East and in the rest of the world.

Rouhani’s platform offered a wise critique of the previous administration’s conduct of foreign relations.

Any objective analysis of Iran’s unique attributes within the larger context of its tumultuous region would reveal the country’s significant potential for a prominent regional and global role. The Islamic Republic can actively contribute to the restoration of regional peace, security, and stability and play a catalytic role during this current transitional stage in international relations. In light of the increasing importance of normative and ideational factors in global politics, the Islamic Republic is well suited to draw on the rich millennial heritage of Iranian society and culture and the significant heritage of the Islamic Revolution, particularly its indigenously derived and sustained participatory model of governance. Iran can use such strengths to help realize the deeply cherished national aspirations of the Iranian people, including the achievement of long-term development and regional ascendance commensurate with the country’s inherent capacities and stature.

Iran also benefits from a number of historical characteristics that could be considered unique sources of opportunity, many of which have not been properly or fully leveraged in the past. For example, Iran has remained independent from outside powers and practiced genuine nonalignment, lending it a particular freedom of action within the existing global order. Iran can also leverage its political traditions. It has successfully established an indigenous democratic model of governance, developing and maintaining a rare religious democracy in the modern world. It has an unmatched cultural identity emanating from its dynamic blend of Iranian and Islamic culture, which it can use to promote its mission and message throughout the entire Islamic world. As an ancient society with a plurality of ethnic, religious, and linguistic minorities, Iran also offers a model for political inclusion. And the country has achieved all of this at the center of a vital geostrategic region that has witnessed a long history of major-power rivalries, interventions of all sorts, and protracted military conflicts. Finally, Iran has also demonstrated its potent ideational capabilities and universal reach through such initiatives as President Muhammad Khatami’s “Dialogue Among Civilizations” and President Hassan Rouhani’s recent proposal for a “world against violence and extremism,” which was adopted as a resolution by the UN General Assembly last December.

Governance in the modern world is challenging for every state, regardless of its size, demographics, form of government, geographic position, level of development, or relations with the world. Iran has been an organized state since antiquity, albeit with some periods of interruption. It has thus had extensive relations throughout history, in war and in peace, with its numerous neighbors and with other contending powers. It has accumulated a rich, layered collective memory and a deep reservoir of experiences. Iran borders seven countries and shares access to either the Caspian Sea or the Persian Gulf with 11 countries; both bodies of water are of interest to the littoral states as well as to a host of outside powers. Thus, Iran inevitably has a full plate to deal with when it comes to its national security and foreign relations.

Iran also finds itself in a fundamentally crisis-ridden region. The decades-long occupation of Palestine and the ongoing conflict there has taken a destructive toll on the well-being and development of the entire Middle East. The chronic turmoil, instability, and violence in the region have grown worse in recent years due to a series of protracted external military interventions, most notably in Afghanistan and Iraq. Since early 2011, political upheavals in the Arab world and their generally bloody aftermaths — dubbed by some during their initial stages as “the Arab Spring” and by others as “the Islamic Awakening” — have introduced another destabilizing factor to the region. The trend appears likely to continue for quite some time, even though the direction of the process remains extremely uncertain.

Given this overall regional picture and the dynamics at work between local and external players — most prominently the United States — Iran today has to grapple with a number of major challenges in its external relations. Needless to say, the long shadow of the decades-old and still ongoing tussle between Iran and the United States, which has been much exacerbated as a result of the nuclear imbroglio, has further complicated the state of relations between Iran and a host of its neighbors. Meanwhile, there has been a recent surge in the activities of extremist and violent nonstate actors in countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria, with a clear and unmistakable anti-Iran, anti-Shiite platform. A well-orchestrated campaign has promoted Islamophobia, Iranophobia, and Shiite-phobia and depicted Iran as a threat to regional peace and security; extended support to anti-Iran claimants in the region; tarnished Iran’s global image and undermined its stature; armed Iran’s regional rivals; actively supported anti-Iran forces, including the Taliban and other extremist groups; and fomented disagreements between Iran and its neighbors.


It was within this international context that Rouhani won a decisive victory in the heavily contested Iranian presidential election in June 2013. He won 51 percent of all the votes cast in the first round against five conservative rivals. His political platform of prudent moderation and hope represented a significant turning point in Iranian politics. The fact that voter turnout reached 73 percent suggests that the public had moved past the lingering divisions of the June 2009 election.

Rouhani’s pragmatic positions on foreign and domestic issues proved reassuring to the Iranian electorate. Rouhani distinguished his campaign from the murky platforms of his rivals in several key respects: his clear analysis of Iran’s current situation, his lucid and unambiguous articulation of the major challenges facing society and the state, and his honest and straightforward approach to problems and possible solutions. In this way, Rouhani managed to mobilize the disenchanted segments of the population to take an active interest in the final days of the campaign and to participate in the national vote.

Rouhani’s foreign policy platform was based on a principled, sober, and wise critique of the conduct of foreign relations during the preceding eight years under the previous administration. Rouhani promised to remedy the unacceptable state of affairs through a major overhaul of the country’s foreign policy. The changes he proposed demonstrated a realistic understanding of the contemporary international order, the current external challenges facing the Islamic Republic, and what it will take to restore Iran’s relations with the world to a state of normalcy. Rouhani also called for a discourse of “prudent moderation.” This vision aims to move Iran away from confrontation and toward dialogue, constructive interaction, and understanding, all with an eye to safeguarding national security, elevating the stature of Iran, and achieving long-term comprehensive development.

Prudent moderation is an approach based on realism, self­-confidence, realistic idealism, and constructive engagement. Realism requires an understanding of the nature, structure, mechanisms, and power dynamics of the international system and of the potential and limits of its institutions. Rouhani’s moderation brings together a profound conviction in the cherished ideals of the Islamic Revolution with an objective evaluation of Iran’s actual capacities, capabilities, and constraints. It demands a deliberate aversion to actions that are insulting, condescending, or self-aggrandizing. It promotes self-confidence based on an understanding of Iran’s material and moral resources, including the collective wisdom of its citizenry. It values accountability, transparency, and honesty in dealing with the populace and implies a willingness to reform and improve existing policies. Rouhani’s approach entails a delicate balancing act: between national, regional, and global needs, on the one hand, and the available means, instruments, and policies, on the other; between persistence and flexibility in foreign policy; between goals and means; and among various instruments of power in a dynamically changing world. Finally, Rouhani’s commitment to constructive engagement requires dialogue and interaction with other nations on an equal footing, with mutual respect, and in the service of shared interests. It requires that all participants make serious efforts to reduce tensions, build confidence, and achieve détente.


Guided by this conceptual framework, the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic under the current administration will be based on achieving understanding and consensus at the national level and constructive engagement and effective cooperation with the outside world. Iran’s policies will be guided by the principles of dignity, rationality, and prudence. This overall strategy aims to safeguard and strengthen Iran’s national security, diffuse or eliminate external threats, combat Islamophobia and Iranophobia, elevate the country’s stature, and achieve comprehensive development.

With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs serving as the central organ for planning and executing Iran’s foreign policy, in close coordination with other government bodies, the Islamic Republic will pursue several key goals moving forward. First, Iran will expand and deepen its bilateral and multilateral relations through meaningful engagement with a wide range of states and organizations, including international economic institutions. Multilateralism will play a central role in Iran’s external relations. That will involve active contributions to global norm-setting and assertive participation in coalitions of like-minded states to promote peace and stability. A second priority will be to defend the individual and collective rights of Iranian nationals everywhere and to promote Iranian-Islamic culture, the Persian language, Islamic values, and Islamic democracy as a form of governance. Third, Iran will continue to support the cause of oppressed people across the world, especially in Palestine, and will continue its principled rejection of Zionist encroachments in the Muslim world.

Given the pressing challenges that it faces today, Iran will also focus on a number of more urgent aims. The top priority is to diffuse and ultimately defeat the international anti-Iranian campaign, spearheaded by Israel and its American benefactors, who seek to “securitize” Iran — that is, to delegitimize the Islamic Republic by portraying it as a threat to the global order. The main vehicle for this campaign is the “crisis” over Iran’s peaceful nuclear program — a crisis that, in Iran’s view, is wholly manufactured and therefore reversible. That is why Rouhani wasted no time in breaking the impasse and engaging in negotiations with the so-called P5+1 (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, plus Germany) to find common ground and reach an agreement that will ensure nonproliferation, preserve Iran’s scientific accomplishments, honor Iran’s inalienable national rights under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, and end the unjust sanctions that have been imposed by outside powers.

Iran has no interest in nuclear weapons and is convinced that such weapons would not enhance its security. Iran does not have the means to engage in nuclear deterrence — directly or through proxies — against its adversaries. Furthermore, the Iranian government believes that even a perception that Iran is seeking nuclear weapons is detrimental to the country’s security and to its regional role, since attempts by Iran to gain strategic superiority in the Persian Gulf would inevitably provoke responses that would diminish Iran’s conventional military advantage.

Therefore, the ongoing negotiations over the nuclear issue face no insurmountable barriers. The only requirements are political will and good faith for the negotiators to “get to yes” and achieve the objective established by the Joint Plan of Action adopted in Geneva last November, which states, “The goal for these negotiations is to reach a mutually-agreed long-term comprehensive solution that would ensure Iran’s nuclear programme will be exclusively peaceful.” The unexpectedly fast pace of progress in the negotiations so far augurs well for a speedy resolution of this unnecessary crisis and for the opening up of new diplomatic horizons.

Iran will also endeavor to diffuse external threats by resolving outstanding issues with the rest of the world, in particular with its immediate neighbors. Confidence building and cooperation will be the cornerstones of Iran’s regional policy. That is why last year, Iran proposed the creation of a security and cooperation arrangement in the Persian Gulf area. As a responsible regional power, Iran will actively participate in combating and containing extremism and violence through bilateral, regional, and multilateral cooperation with countries in the region and beyond.

Moreover, Iran will prudently manage its relations with the United States by containing existing disagreements and preventing further tensions from emerging unnecessarily, thereby gradually easing tensions. Iran will also engage with European countries and other Western states with the goal of reinvigorating and further expanding relations. This normalization process must be based on the principles of mutual respect and mutual interest, and it must address issues of legitimate concern to both sides. Iran will also expand and consolidate its amicable ties with other major powers, such as China, India, and Russia. As the chair of the Non-Aligned Movement until 2015, Iran will reach out to emerging powers of the “global South” and will try to responsibly mobilize their enormous potential for contributing to global peace and prosperity.

The Iranian people, with their massive turnout in last year’s presidential election and their decisive choice of assertive engagement, have provided a unique window of opportunity for the new Iranian government and for the world to chart a different and much more promising course in our bilateral and multilateral relations. The Islamic Republic of Iran is determined to vigorously honor its citizens’ choice, which will undoubtedly have a tremendous impact on world affairs.

For this endeavor to succeed, it is imperative for other states to accept the reality of Iran’s prominent role in the Middle East and beyond and to recognize and respect Iran’s legitimate national rights, interests, and security concerns. It is equally important for other states to scrupulously observe the sensitivities of the Iranian nation, particularly regarding its national dignity, independence, and achievements. Westerners, especially Americans, need to modify their understandings of Iran and the Middle East and develop a better grasp of the region’s realities, avoiding the analytic and practical mistakes of the past. Courage and leadership are required to seize this historic opportunity, which might not come again. The opportunity must not be lost.

.Persian Gulf National Day in Foreign Ministry

.Persian Gulf National Day in Foreign Ministry

Persian Gulf National Day in Foreign Ministry

A conference to mark the Persian Gulf National Day was held in the hall of the Foreign Ministry’s Office for Political and International Studies in Tehran on Wednesday with the participation of political experts. The 30th of April (10th of Ordibehesht in Iran’s calendar) was named the Persian Gulf National Day.

According to IRIB, the veteran writer and commentator on the documents related to the Persian Gulf, Mohammad Ajam, talked about the substantiated documents that reiterated the name of Persian Gulf in the domestic and international records. He said that the Persian Gulf is in fact a sea which has been the focus of studies for all astronomers, mathematicians, historians, and those involved in geographical studies. Ajam added this is in fact the importance of this strategic region. On the baseless and fabricated claims which aimed at changing of the true and original name of Persian Gulf to Gulf of Arabia, he said the so-called documents raised by those claimers are nothing but changes on maps through modern technologies including Photoshop software.Meantime, Iran’s former ambassador to Bahrain, Seyyed Mohammad Ahmadi, gave a speech on the necessity to pay special attention to this region by Iran. This expert of the international issues said the importance of the region of Persian Gulf is so much that the Americans have reached the area from thousands of kilometers away.Morteza Rahimi, Iran’s former ambassador to Muscat, was another lecturer at the assembly. He stressed that the attempts to change the true and original name of the Persian Gulf is nothing but a political move rooted in the British colony era. Rahimi emphasized on the utmost capacities, whether political or scientific, to preserve this name.

Moreover, the head of the bureau of Political Studies in the Foreign Ministry, Mostafa Dowlat-yar, said that today’s convention on the Persian Gulf National Day is indeed a symbolic move showing the importance of preserving historical identities. Referring to the fact that the name of Persian Gulf is registered officially at the UN, he reiterated that all the world countries are to respect the historical realities in all maps, books, and recorded or verbal works. The official also shed light on the efforts made by Iranian scientists to institutionalize the name of “Persian Gulf.”

Wednesday, 28 April 2010.  ۱۰:۲۹


     photo jamJam1388 روز ملی خلیج فارس

Ceremonies to Mark National Day of Persian Gulf Day Start in Iran.

Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Ceremonies to mark the National Day of the Persian Gulf started in Iran on Tuesday with the participation of the Iranian people and officials.Several cultural, art, literal and scientific programs are scheduled to be held in Iran and other countries as part of an international festival to introduce Persian Gulf’s identity.”The Persian Gulf trade museum and the permanent secretariat of the National Day of Persian Gulf will be inaugurated in Bushehr (in Southern Iran) today,” Secretary of the headquarters to mark the National Day of the Persian Gulf Gholamhossein Zareyee said on Tuesday.He said that forming a human chain on Persian Gulf coasts, vessel formations in the Persian Gulf, inauguration of an exhibition of books and historical documents on the Persian Gulf and a children’s painting exhibition are among the other programs of the Day.Iran designated April 30 as the National Persian Gulf Day to highlight the fact that the waterway has been referred to by historians and ancient texts as ‘Persian’ since the Achaemenid Empire was established in what is now modern day Iran.The Day marks the anniversary of the expulsion of Portuguese military forces from the Strait of Hormoz in 1622.Head of Permanent Secretariat of International Persian Gulf Festival Homayoun Amirzadeh said that cultural programs for safeguarding the identity of the Persian Gulf will be held in 20 countries concurrent with the Persian Gulf National Day on April 30.

“Introducing Persian Gulf as cradle of peace and friendship in the region, strengthening the cultural dialogue of the Islamic Republic of Iran with the neighboring countries and the rest of the world, indentifying and praising the superior creators of noble cultural, artistic, literal, scientific, research and historical works as well as helping to production and mass dissemination of these works in the field of Persian Gulf are among other objectives of the festival,” he said.

Amirzadeh noted that in accordance with coordination with the Iranian foreign ministry the international aspect of Persian Gulf festival has been strengthened for the current year.

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Iran marks National Persian Gulf Day


April 29, The Iran Project – Iranian people held nationwide celebrations to commemorate the National Persian Gulf Day, the anniversary of the victory over Portuguese troops during a war in Persian Gulf in 1622.

National Persian Gulf Day is an annual observance in Iran that was first suggested in January 2004 and approved by the government in July 2005. It is celebrated on April 29 throughout the county, especially in the coastal cities of the gulf.

April 29, which marks the anniversary of the expulsion of Portuguese military forces from the Strait of Hormuz in 1622, has been designated as the National Persian Gulf Day to highlight its historical identity.

The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea that lies between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Its name has been disputed for decades. Historically and internationally it is known as the Persian Gulf, but some Arab countries insist on using the wrong name Arab Gulf. Iran only uses the historical name because it refers to the Persian Empire, the predecessor of present-day Iran. Scholars believe attempts to change the name of the Persian Gulf is aimed at undermining Iran’s influence in the region.

The name Persian Gulf is actively promoted by the Persian Gulf Online Organization (PGO). In 2004, it offered the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance to establish a new observance dedicated to the Persian Gulf. A year and a half later, National Persian Gulf Day was officially created.

On Friday, museum of Persian Gulf Maps was inaugurated in Hormuz Island in a ceremony attended by Culture and Islamic Guidance Minister Ali Jannati concurrent with National Persian Gulf Day.

Also, a ceremony has been held in Tehran on  Thursday to deliberate on the importance of the strategic waterway and its significance for Iranians.

April 29, 2016

Conspiracy to change a heritage name “The Persian Gulf”

Conspiracy to change a heritage name “The Persian Gulf”

basra bahrefars

by  Dr. M.Ajam, member of GHGN

Historical and unique name of The Persian Gulf and its equivalents in different languages has been continuously in used since 3000 years ago in all languages, cultures, and all civilizations throughout the centuries and across the world. More than 2000 ancient literatures, books and maps belong to the past three millenniums, which contain this historical and heritage name are proof to the Persian Gulf as the right nomenclature. It was in 1952 after confiscation of British Petroleum properties by Iranian government that false and politically motivated title of Arabian Gulf was suggested by BP. then it was Roderick Owen (a British representative in the then colonialized Emirates) that for the first time put this suggestion in his book The Golden Bubble of the Arabian Gulf, This suggestion was later imitated by some Arab extremists and fanatic leaders and the BBC was first to support this dirty conspiracy.

Recent Distorting and denomenclature of the Persian Gulf name is not only an insult to the ancient cultures and injustice to the history and overall heritage of mankind but also an aggression to a universal accepted and established 3000 years ancient and heritage name. Assault to a heritage name is similar to the tragedy that happened to the museum of Baghdad on assaults of 12/4/2002 and both are criminal act.

Persian Gulf, has been recognized as the real and rightful nomenclature not only by all ancient and past writers and historical nations but also by all modern international organizations and Int. societies among them the followings:

1- United Nation.
2- UNCSGN-United Nation Conference on Standardization of Geographical Names.
3- UN Cartographic Unit Staff.
4- IHO-International Hydrographic Organization.
5- IMO- International Maritime Organization.
6- IAPO-International Associations of Physical Oceanography.
7- IHB- International Hydrographic Bureau.
8- United nation Documents on geographical names.
9- UNICODE-Encoding Standards Consortium.
10- ISO-International Standardization Organization.
11- IHA- International Hydrographic Association.
12- UNGEGN-United Nations Group on Geographic Names.
13- UNGIWG- United Nation’s Geographic Information Working group.
14- UNGIS- UN Geographical Information.
15- IAPO- International Association of Physical Oceanography
16- UNEP- United Nation Environmental Program.
19- WB- World Bank.
20- ICA- International Cartography Association.
Incomplitization and distorting this historical name, is an illegal and unconventional act and in contrast to the resolutions of the UNGEGN and UN Conferences on the Standardization of Geographical Names.

Converting this name by a new false name is a clear breach of international laws and regulations. If we don’t join hand this heritage name will be vanished by petro monies of the fanatic leader in region.

M.Ajam, member of GHGN
Guardians for Heritage Geographical Names and
Society for Historical Names. SHN .

For more information:
For detail in Persian language click:


Persian Gulf equivalents and synonyms = Mare de Persia -Sinus Persici- Mare Persio-Sinus Persico- Mare Persio- Mar Persiano-Sinus

Persico Mare Persio-Persiski Zaliv ,Persischer Golf ,Sino Persico . Pars sea- Bahre Fars . Bahre Ajam. Perza Obol- Porucha Wan-Parsitstsots- Persiste Habbugt. Persicus

.Persicon ¡ Persique. Persicum. Parsitstsots. Persidski.

hadair abad (3)


Members of Persian Gulf Organization and their guests attended a meeting in Tehran, Iran on Friday, December 23, 2005.

Members in the meeting were Mr. Sahab, Dr. Mojtahed-zadeh, Mohammad Ala, Pejman Akbarzadeh, Haana Nasserzadeh, Solmaz Ameli, Reza Zakeri. There were as many guests as members present at this meeting.

Before the start of discussions, we remembered ALL the members, specially, Javad Fakharzadeh, Mehdi (Daniel) Pourkesali, Amir Naghisineh-pour, Afshin Dastafshan, Mahan Abedin, Kaveh Farrokh,

 M.Ajam,  Reza Vatandoost, Ashkan Gorji, Arshia Etemadi, Behrang (Bryan) Lahiji, Siamak Ahi, Hooman Keshavars, Behrad Nakhai, Hamid Zangeneh, Davood Rahni, Moji Agha, Kamyar Kalantar, Mazdak Rooein, Nader Rastegar, Esfandiar Bakhtiar, Koorosh Arfaian, Omid Mehraban, and Shahram Mostarshed.

* It was emphasized by all the importance of learning about Iran’s culture and history so that our past mistakes should not be repeated. We agreed that we are “Irandoost” people; our love for Iran was evident in everything we talked about.

* Mr. Sahab mentioned that his company was working on new books for children and documenting more evidences about the Persian Gulf.

* We agreed to educate as many people as we could about Persian Gulf and its importance in Iran’s history as cultural rather than political means.

* It was agreed to work on the Western media. We should convince them about historical facts rather than worrying about what Arabs refer to Persian Gulf.

* Several suggestions were made about the PG website which in due time will be implemented.
* Several pictures were taken at the meeting which will be shared with you once they are developed. Thanks to Haana for taking the pictures.

There were plenty of Persian sweets, tea, fruits, and food to share and enjoy each other’s company. Pejman entertained us by playing piano songs of great singers such as Delkash, Hayeedeh, Banaan, and others. The meeting was the most successful meeting of Persian Gulf members and their friends since its inception in 1998 (both in terms of participants and ideas exchanged.)

Respectfully submitted,
Mohammad Ala, Board Member
Tehran, Iran

The Persian Gulf is one of the oldest commercial waterways of the world having strategic political, economic and social importance. The name Persian for this waterway dates back to thousand years ago, since the long dominant power overlooking and controlling it, at times, on both its northern and southern shores, were the various Iranian empires, such as the Achaemenid, the Seleucid, the Parthian, the Sassanid, the Buwaiyhid, the Seljuqid, the Ilkhanid, the Timurid, the Safavid, and the Qajarid.


In the closing decades of the 20th century, however, with the oil boom in the Arab states on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf, some mischievous elements tried to used the spurious term ‘Arabian’ for this crucial waterway, despite the fact that several of the sheikhdoms on the other side are Iranian and Persian in origin, such as Dubai, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, etc.

Today on April 30, the day on which in the year 1622, the Portuguese invaders were expelled from this waterway including the island of Bahrain by Safavid emperor, Shah Abbas the Great, the Islamic Republic has decided to name this day as Persian Gulf Day.

Based on historical documents, such as books of history, geography, and literature, written by various nations, such as Iranians, Arabs, Turks, Greeks, Romans, Indians, Chinese, Africans, British, Portuguese, French and others, this waterway has been Persian from time immemorial. It is strategically located, stretching from the estuary of the Rivers Euphrates-Tigris-Karoun to the Strait of Hormuz that links it to the Gulf of Oman.

Today also, on its entire northern side is Iran, while on its southern side are six Arab states. It has an area of 233 thousand square kilometers and after Mexican Gulf and the Hudson Bay is considered the third biggest gulf of the world. Through the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf waters meet the Arabian Sea, which is an arm of the larger Indian Ocean. The Persian Gulf accounts for the daily transit of 40 percent of the world’s supply of crude oil.

On March 5, 1975 and January 1, 1999, the UN General Assembly issued statements clarifying that this waterway is the Persian Gulf, and not “Arabian” as alleged by mischievous elements. This spurious name cannot be found in any historical or geographical source, prior to the 1960s, and the Arabs were taught in schools and colleges that the official name is al-Khalij al-Farsi. Even Egypt’s president, Jamal Abdun-Nasser, the champion of Arab nationalism, used to refer to it as al-Khalij al-Farsi, or Persian Gulf.

Those behind the dubious efforts to change the name of the Persian Gulf are the enemies of the Iranian and Arab Muslims. The aim of these agents of colonialism and Zionism is to cause friction between the Iranian and Arabs, and in this plot, certain reactionary Arab regimes are involved. These plots became intensive following the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and Iran’s invitation to all Muslim states to knit ranks in the face of Global Arrogance.

In order to defeat this conspiracy, the Islamic Republic of Iran has brought to attention the bulk of historical and geographical literature in Arabic that refers to this waterway, since the earliest period of Islamic history, as Persian Sea or Persian Gulf. For instance, the famous historian and geographer, Abu’l Qassem Obeidollah ibn Abdullah, Khordadbeh in his book “al-Masalek wa’l-Mamalek”, has used the term Persian Sea.

Another prominent figure to call this Persian Sea was Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Mohammad, known as Ibn Faqih , in his book “Mokhtasar-ol-Boldan”. The celebrated geographer Ibn Houqal in his book “Sourat-al-Ardh” has referred to this waterway as Sea of Fars. In the book “Hodoud al-Alam min-al-Mashreq il’al-Maghreb”, which is the oldest book of geography in Arabic, the term Persian Gulf has been used. Among the modern Arab writers, Jurji Zaydan, Philip Khouri Hitti and the famous Egypt-based Arabic encyclopedia, “al-Monjed”, the term Persian Gulf has been used.

Thus in view of these facts, the feverish attempts since the closing decades of the 20th century are an exercise in futility, even though these Persian Gulf Arab states have printed books and prepared map with the distorted term Khalij al-Arabi. This is nothing but an exercise in futility in view of the ancient Arabic texts we have mentioned. The then US secretary of state William Rogers in his 1971 report regarding the foreign policy of Iran has used the term Persian Gulf.

Zbigniew Brzezinski the advisor to the then US President Jimmy Carter in his book titled “Game Plan” has used the term Persian Gulf. Former UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim in his book titled “Glass Palace of World Politics” has used the terms Persian Gulf while discussing the Iraqi imposed war on Iran. In the US Congress Library and New York Argo Library there are over 300 maps in which the name of the Persian Gulf has been registered. In the British Library, and London’s public documents centre, there are over 300 maps which mention the term Persian Gulf. The First International Laws Convention held in Geneva in 1958, the Persian Gulf was among the 20 waterway whose international sea rights were defined.


The United Nations which includes 22 Arab states as its members that always uses the geographical term Persian Gulf. In the UN convention for laws of Seas dated December 10, 1982, has mentioned the sovereignty of the Islamic Republic of Iran over the Persian Gulf. On August 10, 1984, the UN officially announced that the body of water on the southern coasts of Iran between the Hormuz Strait and the Tigris-Euphrates Estuary is Persian Gulf.

Thus it is clear that the geographical term Persian Gulf is correct and will remain Persian Gulf forever, which means no temporary country can ever erase it and replace with a spurious name.

A glance at the Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the term : Persian Gulf

سازمان نام های جغرافیایی ایالات متحده آمریکا یک بار دیگر طی بخشنامه ای بر کاربرد صحیح نام تاریخی خلیج فارس در کتابها و مکاتبات و نقشه های عمومی تاکید کرد.

United States Board on Geographic Names
Foreign Names Committee
Statement Regarding the US Board on Geographic Names’ Decision on the Name ‘Persian Gulf’
The US Board on Geographic Names (US BGN) is aware of regional and national  sensitivities
associated with the name of this geographic feature, and with similar toponymic issues in many
parts of the world. The basis for the US BGN’s decision on the name ‘Persian Gulf’ rests on two
of the Board’s policies covering the selection of standard names in areas outside of the United
The first policy addresses selection of standard names for high seas features, i.e., bodies of water
and maritime features that contain area beyond the sovereignty of a single nation. Board policy1
states that a single conventional name, if one exists, will be chosen as the standard name for such
features for official use in US Government publications.
The second policy covers the selection of a conventional name, defined as an English-language
name in widespread and current usage. Qualification of an English-language name under the
criterion of “widespread and current usage” is determined by consulting, among other sources,
the latest editions of the various print and online English-language geographic references.
In applying these policies to the case of the subject high seas feature, the Board’s Foreign Names
Committee has determined that the longstanding BGN-approved name ‘Persian Gulf’ is still the
appropriate standard name for use in official US Government publications.
In 1993 the BGN Foreign Names Committee did not approve a proposal from US Central
Command to change the name ‘Persian Gulf’ to ‘Arabian Gulf.’
Use of the term ‘Arabian Gulf’ is acceptable when communicating informally with Arabicspeaking
military and government partners in the region. This name may also be used in internal
memoranda and other communications not destined for a public audience. If the name ‘Arabian
Gulf’ is used in internal-use graphics the following disclaimer should be included:
“’Persian Gulf’ is the name approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for the
water body labeled ‘Arabian Gulf’ on this graphic.”
However, in comments to the press, and in maps and reports reflecting the U.S. Government
positions, policy dictates use of the BGN-approved name ‘Persian Gulf’ only.

۱ Maritime Features policy approved 29 November 2005. APPROVED by e-mail vote 29 March 2013.

UNGEGN:  A glance at the Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the term : Persian Gulf

A glance at the Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the term : Persian Gulf

Nomenclature:Persian Gulf .



 Persian Gulf in Historical texts and  Documents.

atlasPersian gulfDrLArijaniاطلس خلیج فارس.

Persian Gulf in all  Historical Maps of the region


1392iponpix 349

For the first time in 1971 in a UN text wrong term was used and then was corrected by  a UN instruction and Note No. AD311/1GEN dated March 5, 1971.

From among the other instructions of United Nations, the following samples can be named:

· Note No. LA45.82 dated Aug. 10, 1984 (New York)

· Circular No. CAB/1/87/63 dated 16.02.1987 of Managing Director of UNESCO.

· ST/CSSER/29 dated Jan. 10, 1990.

· AD/311/1/GEN dated March 5, 1991.

· ST/CS/SER.A/29/Add.1 dated Jan. 24, 1992.

· ST/CS/SER.A/29/Add.2 dated Aug. 18, 1994.

· ST/CS/SER.A/29/Rev.1 dated May 14, 1999.


Translated and abstracted from the book:

“Documents on the Persian Gulf‘s name ancient  heritage for all the time”. By : Dr.Mohammad Ajam. December 2007

 The Persian Gulf and its equivalent in different languages has been in used continuously  since 2500 years ago in all languages and all over the world specially in the Arab world so that  Befor 1960s not even a single case of calling “the Gulf ” as the Arabian gulf   been found in any text or map specially  in Arabic language.

for the first time the  new name was appeared in 1960s  pan Arabism era.Not only ancient and past centuries texts and contracts but also all  international organization and institutions also  uses and recognize the termPersian Gulfas the valid term.

Below are Some Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the Nomenclature: Persian Gulf .


 The importance of the geographical names had been considered by geographers since ancient times. Through maps, atlases, and books, thePersian gulf’s name  had been  protected during different eras as a part of historical, cultural identity and saved as intangible heritage. For the same reason, any change, destruction, or alteration of the such unique names registered in historical deeds and maps is like the destruction of the cultural heritages. Therefore, the names of geographical features profiting from a common unique historical identity, should not be utilized as political instruments in gaining  a political, tribal, and racial objective.

ThePersian Gulfas the most ancient commercial naval path  is located in the southwest of the Asian Continent separating Arabian plate from Iranian (Persian) plate  with a length of 1259 kilometer and a depth of  average 60m.

Name of  the  Persian Gulf.

Researchers and scholar, who have investigated  the background of  name of thePersian Gulf, became convinced of the applicability  and unanimous use of the name since ancient time and at least during the past 2500 years, i.e. as of the time of the powerful Pars (Persian) Empire. has never been seen such an unanimity in theMiddle Eastamong writers and scholars on using one name during  ۲ millennium history .Considering the historical background of the name Persian Gulf, Sir Arnold Wilson mentions in  his  book, published in 1928 that:

“No water channel has been so significant asPERSIAN GULFto the geologists, archaeologists, geographers, merchants, politicians, excursionists, and scholars whether in  the past or in present. This water channel which separates the Iran Plateau from the Arabia Plate, has enjoyed an Iranian Identity since at least 2200 years ago.

also some famous Arab scholars , historian, politician and Professor as like Mohammad Aabed al Jaaberi , Abdolhadi Altazi  and Abdol Moneim Saeed Ahmad al Sarraaf and … also in separate writing or interview has mentioned as:” all the maps and written deed in Arabic had referred to the bahra or khalij fars(Persian gulf)there are no single written map or document before 1960s to refer to Persian gulf as Arabian gulf  and there is no need to change of a historical name.”

Background for Application wrong term

Iran and Britain signed treaties  of 19 March 1809(part5)- 1812- 1814 all have mentioned Persian gulf as an Iranian sea(Britain army will not settled in any island or coast on the Persian gulf without permission of Iran(T 1809Part5- T1812P9) but Britain breached the treaties and attacked on Khark Island in 1837, the government of Iran at that time protested to England’s colonialist policy in the PERSIAN GULF and officially warned the government of Britain to avoid mischief intended at separating the Islands of the Persian gulf which is an Iranian sovereignty sea. This warning caused the Times Journal, published inLondonin 1840, to claim the PERSIAN GULF asBritainSea, but such a name never found any place.

But following nationalization of the oil industry inIranin 1950 and dispossession of UK Companies and serving relations betweenIranandUK, the Ministry of Britain Colonies, for the first time used the incorrect name of this water body.

In these years, the Arab emirates of the  South of the Persian Gulf were either colonies ofBritainor under its protectorate. To compensate its defeat, the representative of theUKin the PERSIAN GULF Roderick Owen published“The golden bubble on theArabian gulfdocumentary”.( Publisher: London, Collins, 1957.)  “ blive to be  agent of  MI6  Spy Org.  The book was immediately translated into Arabic. In his book he suggested change of thePersian gulfname to satisfy the Arabs nationalists .

:Roderick Owen wrote in the preface of his book:

“I visited PERSIAN GULF and believed that it was Persian Gulf, because I had never seen any  map or deed, unless it had named the place as Persian Gulf, but by living there, I found out that the people residing at the( western) beaches are Arabs, therefore, to be polite, we should name it:Arabian Gulf.”

It is very clear that Owen  was wrong. Even if he was correct it can not be a good excuse to change a historical name of an international waterway. Even now all original Arabs citizen of the 6 Arab state of GCC are less than population ofTehran. If the population or number of the countries around a sea  is a criteria to change the historical name of the Persian gulf with 2500 years continuously in used then why the Indian and Pakistani shall keep the name of encircled sea around them with the current name of Arabian sea?! So Indian and Pakistani are entitled to change it to Mokran orUrduSEA. Or African countries should changeIndian Ocean. But  that is not the rule or criteria the rule shall  be decided by UNCSGN and UNGEGN.

In 1960, after Iranand Egypt’s disconnection of relationships and after the Arab-Israeli war, anti Iranian actions culminated due to the SHAH’s support ofIsrael. in a congress of Baas Party inDamascus1970, participating heads demanded for change of the name ofPersian gulfto a nationalistic , without .

relying on any legal and historical document.

تمبر خلیج فارس

The Name of Persian Gulf in Historical texts and  Documents.

Few written deed has remained from before the  Persian (Pars) Empire, but in the oral history and culture, the Iranians have called the southern waters ofPersiaat that time asAjamSeaand  IranSeaand Pars sea.

During the years: 559 to 330 B.C. coinciding with the sovereignty of the Persian Empire  over the most part of the Middle East area , especially the whole part  of the  Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian  Peninsula, the name of Pars ( Persian) Sea has been widely written in the compiled texts of the different era.

In the travel account of Pythagoras, Darius sent Scylax to survey the Persian sea. several chapters are related to the description of his travels accompanied by Dariush I,  toSusaand Perse polis, and the area ofPersian gulf is described.

From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the Great, which belongs to the 5th century BC where, Dariush Shah , the emperor  of Persian (Pars) Empire has mentioned  the PERSIAN GULF Water Channel as  PARSSEA, in the Hecataeus maps(472 to 509 B.C.) Persian Gulfdescribed .

Shimla In5Jul2013 (43)

In the world map of Niark Niarjous (285-347 B.C.), Persian Gulfis described. At the same time, many maps and deeds prepared up to the 8th century by the scientists and geographical researchers such as Hecataeus, Herodotus, Hipparchus, Claudius Ptolemy, Krats Malous and in the Islamic period, also  Tabari- Mohammad Ibn Mousa Khwarazmi-  Abou  Abu Yusef Eshaq Kindi, Ibn Khardazabeh – Batani, Masoudi (Masudi), Abou Zeyd Balkhi, Estakhri, Ibn Houghal (Ibn-e Hawqal), Aboureyhan Birouni (Biruni) and others, had explained the Persian gulf and saing that “ there is a wide sea at south of Iran named Pars Sea, (Persian),  Bahre Fars, Sinus Persicus and Mare Persicum and so on.

In a book, named travels of Periplus Eritrea, the Greek ‘traveler’, of the 1st century A.D. has called the Red Sea as Arabian Gulf; the Indian ocean has been named Aritra (Eritrean) Sea; the waters at Oman Coast is called Pars Sea; Barbarus region (betweenOmanandYemencoast said to belong  to Persian (Persia), and the Gulf located at south side ofIran(to the south of) is named: PERSIAN GULF. also the residence  of Persians living at both sides of thePersian gulfhad  been confirmed .

:Islamic era 

مسند ابویعیestakhri persian gulf bahre fars

There are no any written document about Arabian coast  prior to prophet Mohammad era. However, in more than 300 geographical, historical, literary, books or interpretation(Tafsir)  of quran and Islamic  morals, and jurisprudence, the Muslims and Arab scholars  have described PERSIAN GULF from beginning day of Islamic period to the last century .from Tabari (1100 ac)to tantavee(1900) all Islamic scholar and religious  leader in the different era ABAASID- FATOMID – MUGUL- OTHEMAN – SAFAVID ERA  ALL  unanimously  had referred to it as Persian gulf or Persian sea .

Hegemony of Portuguese in the Persian gulf

 In 1507 A.D.Portugal’s navy capturedHormuzIslandunder commandment of Alphonso Burkerk and it continued till 1620. In a research essay, Dr. José Manuel Garcia, professor and a member of Geographical Society of Portugal emphasized the name of Persian Gulf in the official and unofficial deeds and maps ofPortugalsince 1507 so far. The maps prepared by the Portuguese onPersian Gulfare kept in museums as mankind heritage.

From among 50 maps and letters exchanged during the years: 1500 to 1700

A.D. among the governors of Persian Gulf and the kings ofPortugaland

Spainor those mentioned in books and writings of tourists,Persian Gulfhas been named as follows:

Mare de Persia, Persico Sinus, mare Persio,  Mare Persicum, Mar Persiano,

Persiski Zaliv, Persischer Golf,ParsSea, Bahre Fars, Perza obol, Persiste Habbugt.

Persian Gulf in arabs Contracts and Accords

As of 1800 to 1970, at least in 45 contracts concluded among the tribal leader(Emirates) or countries such as Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Ottoman, Oman, Emirs of  Motesalehe (United Emirates), compiled in English and Arabic, the name of Persian Gulf(bahre fars) has been used.

In a book published in UAE 1989 by Rashed Ali Mohammad titled : ((Economic and political agreement between the Arabs Emirs and Britain 1806-1971)) he had included original of  around  ۲۲ contracts in all of them in both Arabic  and English text the name of Persian gulf  had been mentioned.[1]

:From among the aforesaid contracts the following can be mentioned:

۱٫ General contract with Arabian Emirs on Jan. 8, 1820 between Sheikhs of United Emirates atPersian Gulf, signed by General Cair and 11 chiefs of Arab Tribes, the word: Al khaleej Al Farsi has been used in the Arabic texts.-

۲٫ Treaty of 1856 and  ۱۹۴۷ on Prohibition of Slaves trades.-

۳٫ Permanent Contract of Peace in 1853.-

Contract on Independence of Kuwait (this deed was registered on June 19, 1961 with Secretariat of United Nations.

Treaty on Determination of Border Lines ofIraqandKuwait(1996)-

Even Nasser the pan Arabic leader of Egypthad used the term of (al khaleej al Farsi) Persian gulf in all his speeches and his books and  articles before war 1967.

Persian Gulf in all  Historical Maps of the region

In all the important historical maps and Atlas whether modern or belonging to previous centuries, the water artery located at south ofIranhas been registered asPersian Gulf. In the Arabian countries too, it has always been namedPersian Gulfup to the 70s. For instance, in the Atlas “Al araq fi Al khavaret Al ghadimeh” by Dr. Ahmad Souseh (Baghdad 1959) including 40 maps among the Arabian sources of the Middle Ages all have the Arabic term for the Persian gulf.

In the maps presented by Arabian countries to the International Court of the justice  for settlements of border claims, the name ofPERSIAN GULFhas been mentioned in their documents.

–  Atlas of  La Péninsule Arabique dans les cartes Européennes Anciennes (The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps).Paris, Monde Arabs institute and Tunisia university  IMA & Khaled. Al Ankary, 2001.  ۴۲۴ pp. contains  ۲۶۰ maps with details about each map in 3 languages: Arabic, English and French. Almost all  of these 260 maps have the correct name of Persian Gulf.

Moreover, 10  maps have used both Persian Gulf for the gulf and  also   persian Sea (for the current area of  Seaof Oman and Arabian sea) •

The book: Roots of Kuwait. “Osoul Alkuwait Almanshour Alalam” (1991) published in theNetherlandsalso contains 15 maps where the name of PERSIAN GULFexists.

  • In  the “Atlas of Alkuwaitfi Al kharaet Al Aalam” some maps have been used where there exists the name ofPERSIAN GULF.

In Atlas of “Alkuwaitfi Al kharaet Al tarikhieh” published by the efforts of Abdollah Yousef   Al ghanim in 1994, there are about 200 maps mentioning the name ofPersian Gulf

  •  In the ARABIC book: “Al khalij al fars Abar Al tarikh va Al ghoroun” (written by Mohammad  Mirza, 1976Cairo) there are 52 maps drawn out of Arabic sources, all  have the  name ofPersian Gulf.
  •   In Atlas of “History of Islam” (1951-55AmericaandEgypt) the namePersian Gulf has been mentioned IN  ۱۶ MAPS.
  •    In the Atlas of “Khalij (Gulf) in the Historical Maps” published in UAE  (۱۹۹۹) more than 600 maps have the term Persian gulf.
  •  The Arabic Bank and Beyt Al quran inBahrainpublished a large wall calendar in 1996  containing the 11 historical map ofBahrainin which all the maps contain the name ofPersian Gulf

 It is interesting that from among 6000 existing historical maps published up to 1890, there are only three maps mentioning the names of Basreh Gulf, Ghatif Gulf, and Arabic Gulf, this name in fact are the name of bays of the Persian gulf.  in local language they call the bay also as the gulf like :gulf of Busher-ChahBahar Gulf,SirafGulf,BasrehGulf,Ghatif Gulf,Bahrain Gulf, Basre gulf …. but such names are not applied to the entirety of the Persian Gulf.

 It is obvious that the promotional use by the Arabs of the three aforementioned maps, whose  identity and originality are not clear, in comparison with 6000 maps and more than 300  historical and credible geographical  books from ancient time to 20thcentury , shall lack any value.

In the Arabic Dictionaries like Al Monjed, and also in all (60)Qoranic Tafsires and religious Islamic books  and in all treaties ( more than 30 Arabic treaties between the Arabs tribe leader  with theUKand Othman and Iranians )Persian gulfhas been used .

In the  many museums all over the world some can find maps or manuscript having the name Persian gulf some recorded as intangible world heritage (UNESCO)  In Library of American Congress, Britain National Library (London), deeds at Ministry of India’s Affairs (London), Library of Faculty of  Orientals Studies of London, there are more than 300 maps, containing the name Persian Gulf. In Eskandria Library of  Egypt And National Musum Of Egypt alsoPersian gulfmap are preserved.

Furthermore, about 30 valid Atlas have registered the name ofPERSIAN GULFwithin the past 300  years, such as: Atlas of Thomas Herbert (1628).

– Atlas of Pars,LousajUniversity(1863). – Atlas ofGermany(1861), Pars Envile Atlas (1760).-  Atlas of Modern Geography (1890).-  Atlas of London (1873),-  Atlas of Ernest Embrosius (1922),-  Atlas of Bilefild (1899)- Atlas of Harmsorth (19th Century, London). – ….

In 18th to 20th centuries when theUKexpanded its dominance over the seas and appeared as protectorate of the Sheikhs on the south sectors of the PERSIAN GULF, the official maps and documents of the areas  in all languages refers to the GULF asPERSIAN GULF.

Applications of the Name Persian Gulf by International Organizations

Not only the Persian Gulf had been used since ancient time in all languages but also in current time non Arabs countries had never recognized a new tribal name and UN and all international Organizations and affiliated foundations have applied the correct name of PERSIAN GULF.

In the Arabic text  of the UN some time had appeared wrong term but as soon AS the secretariat  have considered it  the correction have been done.

For the first time in 1971 in a UN text wrong term was used and then was corrected by  a UN instruction and Note No. AD311/1GEN dated March 5, 1971.

From among the other instructions of United Nations, the following samples can be named:

· Note No. LA45.82 dated Aug. 10, 1984 (New York)

· Circular No. CAB/1/87/63 dated 16.02.1987 of Managing Director of UNESCO.

· ST/CSSER/29 dated Jan. 10, 1990.

· AD/311/1/GEN dated March 5, 1991.

· ST/CS/SER.A/29/Add.1 dated Jan. 24, 1992.

· ST/CS/SER.A/29/Add.2 dated Aug. 18, 1994.

· ST/CS/SER.A/29/Rev.1 dated May 14, 1999.

 In all the above mentioned notes and circulars, it has been instructed that the water body  existing at the south side ofIranbe stated:PERSIAN GULF. The Specialized Group for Experts on Standardization of Geographical Names,(UNGEGN) active in the United Nations Social  Economical Council also emphasizes the correct use of historical names for features, and is active in dispute settlement related to geographical names. “Naphtali Cadman” the head of Working Group for Toponymy Information has stated in a book published by UNGEGN on 2001  that the motivation to change the name ofPERSIAN .

** Some of the most important historical atlases of the persian gulf are as:

  • ۱- Atlas of The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (253 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary, Institute du Monde Arabe,ParisandTunisiaUniversity,2001

all 253 maps of this atlas has been printed in color and 3 languages and have the corect name of Persian gulf also the maps in pages:-141-226-323-322-331-345-347-363-355 have mentioned persian gulf for the Gulf and also persian sea for the body of water of current Arabian sea and Oman gulf , such as the hours shape map of Bunting H.S.Q34/24CM Hanover,1620.

۲- Atlas of Historical maps of the gulf by sultan muhammad al qasimi Sharjeh 500 maps of the persian gulf .

  • ۳- Atlas ofIraqin old maps. by Ahmad Sussa 39 old maps of arabic and islamic sources all have the correct name of persian gulf(Bahre Fars)
  • ۴-Kuwaitin the maps of the world 1992 . contan 80 maps all have thePersian gulfname.
  • ۵-Kuwait reading the historical maps, 200 maps ,1994 .
  • ۶-Roots ofKuwait, 15 maps ,1991.
  • ۷-description of thePersian gulfin the historical maps by Iranology foundation, 40 maps of Islamic scholars and 120 maps of European famous cartographers 0f1500-1900 DrHassan Habibi 2007.

Tehran.all the maps have the name persian gulf. and many other atlases have also been published and they have been described in the book: Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name .[14]

International Organizations

International organization and Intergovernmental organization uses the Persian gulf as the international recognized term.[15] .[۱۶]

written description by Muslim travelers and European geographers . Among historians, travellers and geographers of the Islamic era, many of them writing in Arabic or persian from the 9th to the 17th century, Ibn Khordadbeh,[3] Ibn al-Faqih,[4] Ibn Rustah,[5] Sohrab,[6] Ramhormozi,[7] Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al Istakhri,[8] Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Mas’udi,[9] Al-Mutahhar ibn Tahir al-Maqdisi (d. 966),[10] Ibn Hawqal,[11] Al-Muqaddasi,[12] Ibn Khaldun, Mohammad ibn Najub Bekiran,[13] Abu Rayhan Biruni,[14] Muhammad al-Idrisi,[15] Yaqut al-Hamawi,[16] Zakariya al-Qazwini,[17]Abu’l-Fida,[18] Al-Dimashqi,[19] Hamdollah Mostowfi,[20] Al-Nuwayri,[19] Ibn Batutta,[21] Katip Çelebi and other sources have described the Persian gulf and used the terms, “Bahr-i Fars”, “Bahr-i Ajam“, “Bahr-i-Farsi”, “Dera-i-Fars”(all refers to Persia) and are equable to Persian gulf or Persian sea .

Iranian has always respected the geographical names such as for the Arabian sea although for the Arabian sea and the gulf of Oman historically other names had been used such as  Mokran sea- Persian sea-  Akhzar sea …


some arab scholar had wrote to justify the change of the term persian gulf they claimed that arabian gulf also had been used in ancien time they had mentioned pliny book . but infact pliny had never mentioned persian gulf as Arabian gulf  :below is the text:

Pliny: Natural History ۶٫۹۶-۱۱۱٫ (On India)

XXVIII107. Moreover in this region the sea then makes a double inroad, into the land; the name given to it by our countrymen is the Red Sea, while the Greeks call it Erythrum, from King Brythras, or, according to others, in the belief that the water is given a red colour by the reflexion of the sun, while others say that the name comes from the sand and the soil, and others that it is due to the actual water being naturally of such a character. [108] However, this sea is divided into two bays. The one to the east is called the Persian Gulf, and according to the report of Eratosthenes measures 2500 miles round. Opposite is Arabia, with a coastline 1500 miles in length, and on its other side Arabia is encompassed by the second bay, named the Arabian Gulf; the ocean flowing into this is called the Azanian Sea. The width of the Persian Gulf at its entrance some make five and others four miles ; the distance in a straight line from the entrance to the innermost part of the Gulf has been ascertained to be nearly 1125 miles, and its outline has been found to be in the likeness of a human head. [109] Onesicritus and Nearchus write that from the river Indus to the Persian Gulf and from there to Babylon by the marshes’of the Euphrates is a voyage of 1700 miles.

: Translated and abstracted from the book:

Documents on the Persian Gulf‘s name: : the eternal heritage of ancient time  By : Mohammad Ajam. 

Also :

  1. ^ IRIB
  2. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names Working Paper No. 61, 23rd Session,Vienna, 28 March – ۴ April 2006. accessed October 9, 2010


  • Documents on thePersian Gulf’s name : the eternal heritage of ancient time

Author: Ajam, Muḥammad. [۵] [۶] و documentary on the name Persian gulf .

[۱]   – راشد، على‏محمد. الاتفاقات السیاسیه و الاقتصادیه التى عقدت بین الامارات ساحل عمان و بریتانیا (۱۸۰۶ – ۱۹۷۱)، منشورات اتحاد کتاب و ادباء    الامارات، ۱۹۸۹

  1. ^
     Asia Times – Asia’s most trusted news source for the Middle East
  2. ^ Bosworth, C. Edmund. “The Nomenclature of the Persian Gulf.” Pages xvii-xxxvi in Alvin J. Cottrell (ed.), The Persian Gulf States: A General Survey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.) (pg xxxiii).. Excerpt: Not until the early 1960s does a major new development occur with the adoption by the Arab states bordering on the Gulf of the expression al-Khalij al-Arabi as weapon in the psychological war with Iran for political influence in the Gulf; but the story of these events belongs to a subsequent chapter on modern political and diplomatic history of the Gulf.
  3. ^ Agapius on a boat, retrieved 24 Feb. 2009.
  4. ^ ALAI, CYRUS. “GEOGRAPHY iv. Cartography of Persia”Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2012-02-01.:

    After World War II, some circles decided to change the name of the Persian Gulf to Arabian Gulf. Although the government of Persia opposed the move vehemently, in some editions of a few maps and atlases the term Persian was omitted, leaving only “The Gulf” (e.g., The Times Atlas, p. 39), while the historical term Persian Gulf mostly remained intact, as in the National Geographic Atlas (p. 77;


  5. .
  6. ^ Picture of Gamal Abdel Nasser’s handwritten letter, using the term Persian Gulf
  7. ^ Picture of 1952 Saudi Arabian ARAMCO map using the name Persian Gulf
  8. ^ Gerard Mercator Terrestrial globe, Arabian section (۱۵۴۱) via
  9. ^ Gerard Mercator Mercator Projection world map (۱۵۶۹) via
  10. ^ Abraham Ortelius Map of Turkish Empire (۱۵۷۰) via
  11. ^ Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism history page
  12. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the name ‘Persian Gulf’ (April 2006).
  13. ^ [۱],Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name : the eternal heritage of ancient time Author: Ajam, Muḥammad.Pirouz Mojtahedzadeh retrieved 24 Feb. 2012.
  14. ^ [۲],Conspiracy to change a heritage name: “The Persian Gulf”2002 by M.Ajam, retrieved 24 Feb. 2012.
  15. ^ [۳],Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name : the eternal heritage of ancient time Author: Ajam, Muḥammad.Pirouz Mojtahedzadeh retrieved 24 Feb. 2012.
  16. ^ UN Editorial directive regarding the Persian Gulf.
  18. ^ “Use of the terms “Persian Gulf”, “Gulf” and “Shatt al-Arab”” (PDF).f
  19. ^ Report of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names on the work of its twenty-third session. Document E/2006/57, Economic and Social Council, United Nations. New York, 2006.[4]
  21. ^ “Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition”. International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  22. ^ “Name game stokes U.S.-Iranian tensions –”CNN. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  23. ^ No Operation
  24. ^ Spencer, Richard (23 February 2010). “Iran threatens flight ban over ‘Persian’ Gulf name row”The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  25. ^ [۵],IRIB,
  26. .
  27. ^ [۶],IRIB,
  1. Arabian documents on the persian gulf:
  2. ‘arab’s documents on the persian gulf
  • فیلم مستنداس

تحریف نام خلیج فارس

Occasional Paper by MEI

MEI is a forward looking, policy oriented non-governmental research institution, striving for academic openness. Non-partisan, non-nationalistic and non-ideological, the MEI has no agenda of its own. The aim is to facilitate a professional and comprehensive understanding of the Middle East. 

The Persian Gulf: Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the Name

Issue No. 22
Monday, 29 November 2010 By: United Nations

United Nations*

[Note: In recent years the historic nomenclature ‘Persian Gulf’ has been contested by the Arab countries which at times denote this region as Arabian Gulf. In the light of this, some have settled for an unhistorical non-prefixed ‘Gulf’ to denote the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. In the light of the controversy, the 2006 UN report prepared by a panel of experts regarding the nomenclature is reproduced here as an Occasional Paper. Editor, MEI OP.]

Also :