Archive for: جولای 2020

Introducing a book and Atlas

Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name the eternal heritage of ancient time . part 2

Introducing a book and Atlas

Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name the eternal heritage of ancient time . part 2

Introducing the book

Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name the eternal heritage of ancient time” is a book and atlas written and compiled by Dr. M. Ajam. published on 2004. A second edition was published under the supervision of Dr. Pirouz Mojtahedzadeh and Dr.M. Ganji in 2009. The book was chosen as a candidate to receive prize of the best  book of the year 2010 in Iran and was announced and ranked  by the books authority of Iran among the best books in the last 50 years on the subject of ” Persian Gulf issues” in Persian language.

** Awards**

At the eleventh International Festival of Iran’s Best Researchs and Researchers of 2010, **this book received the Gold Coin of Excellence Award presented by the Vice President. This book has received many other awards and numerous other letters of appreciation among them a letter from former president Hashemi Rafsanjani.

This book was first published online in 2001.Then it was published in 2004 in color

..gifmaps of the book.

And a newer version of it was released in 2009. The contents of this book have been repeatedly published in the Persian media. According to the recommendations of this book, * the Persian Gulf National Day*  was registered by the Iranian government in 2005.

Part of the book was presented to the United Nations as a national report and published on its geographical site.

   a summary of the book had been published on the UN website in 2006   under the title

A glance at the Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the term : Persian Gul

:It also  can be read in this address

the 2006 UN report prepared by a panel of experts regarding the nomenclature is reproduced here as an Occasional Paper. Editor, MEI OP.

part of the book also had been included  in the book “Persian  Gulf  by Javad Norozi and translated and published into 10 languages : Persian, Arabic, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and Urdu ,also a famous documentary film titled Persian Gulf Name in the Course of  History by  Orod Atarpour has been produced  and broadcasted in IRIB TV and Press TV mainly based on the document of this book.

The book has 6 chapters and some document and maps

 Summary of Chapter Three of the book “Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name the eternal heritage of ancient time 

What’s in a name? For the Persian Gulf, quite a lot

A glance at  the  Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the term: the Persian Gulf

 The Persian Gulf and its equivalent in different languages has been in used continuously  since 2500 years ago in all languages and all over the world specially in the Arab world so that  Befor 1960s not even a single case of calling “the Gulf ” as the Arabian gulf   been found in any text or map specially  in Arabic language.

for the first time the  new fake  name was appeared in Arabic language in  1960s  pan Arabism era.Not only ancient and past centuries texts and contracts but also all  international organization and institutions also  uses and recognize the term Persian Gulf as the valid  and accurate term.

Below are Some Historical, Geographical and Legal  reason for Validity of the Nomenclature: Persian Gulf .

۱- official and unofficial maps and documents in Arabic and other languages

۲- official and unofficial agreements and treaties.

۳-UN and international organization and international law.

۴- historical, religious and geographical books

۵- Arab scholars confess for Validity of the Nomenclature:

 Persian Gulf .

 an important  official map of the Otheman saltanat(emperor  

 ….. نقشه‌ها :Maps animation )

درگذر زمان نامه های تاریخی نیز 

The necessity for the integrity and unity in writing geographical names and prevention of any ambiguity or multiplicity forced the UN to establish a legal foundation. In 1967, the first conference on the standardization of geographical names was held in Geneva with the participation of scientific and administrative commissions. In the same conference (Geneva), all the Arab countries strongly disagreed with the Israel’s suggestion for changing the name “Gulf of Aqaba”, calling it an improper action. Other countries supported the Arab nations’ concept and finally Israel withdrew its request [3]. From a legal perspective, this action by the Arab countries can be used against themselves in a similar case. “Since 1971 when the incomplete phrase “the Gulf” was first used by a UN letter, protest notes were sent to the UN and it issued a correction and announcing the UN official’s rule.

۲٫۱٫ Naming Background of the Persian Gulf

“The Red Sea was introduced as the Arabian Gulf by Herodotos. In the world map Hecataeus (472 to 509 B.C), the Persian Gulf and Arabian Gulf (Red Sea) have been clearly shown. Also, in the world map of Diseark (285-347 B.C), the Persian Gulf and Arabian gulf are completely distinct”. The ancient Greeks called Pars Sea as “Persian Gulf” and Red Sea as “Arabian Gulf” [۴].



The earliest known world maps date to classical antiquity, the oldest examples of the 6th to 5th centuries BCE still based on the flat Earth paradigm. World maps assuming a spherical Earth first appear in the Hellenistic period. The developments of Greek geography during this time, notably by Eratosthenes and Posidonius culminated in the Roman era, with Ptolemy’s world map (2nd century CE), which would remain authoritative throughout the Middle Ages.

With the Age of Discovery, during the 15th to 18th centuries, world maps became increasingly accurate; exploration of Antarctica, Australia, and the interior of Africa by western mapmakers was left to the 19th and early 20th century.

  In all maps, documents and correspondence until 1960, the name of the Persian Gulf and its equivalents were used for body of water between Iran and Arabia.

According to the book “Documents on the Persian Gulf’s name”by Dr.Ajam .

A number of these maps and documents are introduced and published in the following Atlases:

Maps Of the Persian Gulf , Alqasimi, Sultan bin Mohammad, “The Gulf in Historical Maps” ۱۴۷۸ ۱۸۶۱-,Leicester, 1996. 2th edition in 1999

Atlas of geographical maps and historical documents about the Persian Gulf from prehistoric times to the present Published by Sahab Institute of Geography and Cartography in 1971 in Tehran.This atlas consists of eight chapters, and 80 maps. The maps collected in this atlas are the work of great geographers and historians of Iranian, Arab, European, Indian, Roman, Egyptian, central Asia, African and American.

” Atlas of “Description of the Persian Gulf in Historical Maps” was published in 2008 by the Iranology Foundation, in Iran which presents 40 maps of the Islamic Middle East cartographer and 120 European   

  maps of colonial era 

The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (253 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary, Institute du Monde Arabe,Paris and Tunisia University,2001 .

*ATLAS OF OLD& HISTORICAL MAPS THE PERSIAN GULF 300BC 2000AD  BY Mohammad Reza Sehab . tehran 2005 

۵۸۳ page 2 volum almost 500 maps.

List of some early maps which had mentioned the Persian Gulf and also some famous atlases explained the Persian Gulf:

  1.     Map of Babylonianmaps. Babylonian Map of the World. the oldest known world map, 6th century BCE Now in the British Museum.
  2. Map of Anaximander world map-Reconstruction of Anaximander’s map
  3. Map of Hecataeus world map- Reconstruction of Hecataeus’ map
  4. Map of Mappa di Eratostene.1883 reconstruction of Eratosthenes
  5. Map of World map hedo.A 1628 reconstruction of Posidonius ideas about the positions of continents (many details couldn’t have been known by Posidonius)
  6. Map of Map Pomponius Mela rotated.An 1898 reconstruction of Pomponius Mela’s view of the World.
  7. Map of Ptolemy-World Vat Urb 82.The oldest surviving Ptolemy’s world map Ptolemaic world map, redrawn according to his 1st projection by Orthodox monasticismmonks at Constantinople under Maximus Planudes around 1300
  8. Map of Ptolemy World Map.Nicolaus Germanus’s 1467 Latin world map according to Ptolemy’s 2nd projection, the first known to the west
  9. Map of World Map by Cosmas Indicopleustes.
  10. Map of Ibn Howqal World map. by Ibn Hawqal (south at top)
  11. Map of Cotton world map.The Anglo-Saxon ‘Cotton’ world map (c. 1040).
  12. Map of Beatus map.World map from the Saint-Sever Beatus
  13. Map of Kashgari , Mahmud al-Kashgarial-Kashgari’s ”Diwanu Lughat at-Turk”.
  14. Map of Tabula Rogeriana upside-down. (1154).
  15. Map of Hereford Mappa Mundi 1300.The Hereford Mappa Mundi.
  16. World map pietro vesconte. Pietro Vesconte’s world map, 1321
  17. Map of Catalan-Atlas – Two leaves of The world atlas
  18. Map of Da-ming-hun-yi-tu.Da Ming Hunyi Tu map
  19. Map of KangnidoMap.Kangnido world map (1402)
  20. Map of DeVirgaDetail.De Virga world map (1411–۱۴۱۵)
  21. Map of Biancomap.Bianco world map (1436)
  22. Map of Mapa_de_Borgia_XV.Borgia map (early 15th century)
  23. Map of Genoese map.Genoese map of 1457, Biblioteca Nazionale at Florence
  24. Map of FraMauroDetailedMapInverted.Fra Mauro map (1459)
  25. Map of Martellus world map.Martellus world map (1490)
  26. Map of Behaims Erdapfel.Behaim’s Erdapfel
  27. Map of Juan de la Cosa-North up.Map of Juan de la Cosa, shown rotated right (in the original manuscript north points left), 1500
  28. Map of Cantino planisphere 1502, Biblioteca Estense, Modena
  29. Map of Caverio Map circa 1506, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris
  30. Map of Ruysch map.Johannes RuyschRuysch’s 1507 map of the world
  31. Map of Waldseemuller map 2.Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
  32. Map of Piri reis world map 01.Fragment of the Piri Reis map by Piri Reis in 1513
  33. Map of Piri reis world map 01.Piri reis world map 01
  34. Map of PietroCoppo.Map of Pietro Coppo, Venice, 1520
  35. Map of Map Diego Ribero 1529.World Map by Diogo Ribeiro, “Propaganda map” (1529), Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
  36. Map of Mercator 1569.pngGerardus MercatorMercator ”Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio”, 1569.
  37. Map of Abraham OrteliusOrtelius’ world ”Theatrum Orbis Terrarum” (1570)
  38. Map of 1581 Bunting clover leaf map.”Die ganze Welt in einem Kleberblat” (The entire World in a Cloverleaf). Jerusalem is in the centre of the map surrounded by the three continents.
  39. Map of Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (坤輿萬國全圖). (۱۶۰۲), Japanese copy
  40. Map of Nova totius Terrarum Orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula (Hendrik Hondius) balanced. IIHendrik Hondius, ”Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Geographica ac Hydrographica Tabula”, 1630
  41. Map of Orbis Terrarum Nova et Accuratissima Tabula by Nicolaes Visscher, 1658.
  42. Map of 1794 Samuel Dunn Wall Map of the World in Hemispheres – Geographicus World2-dunn-1794. (mathematician)
  43. World Map 1689. Van Schagen’s map of the world, 1689
  44. Map of persia. Persian Gulf  1747 Boen.
  45. Persian(IRAN) Empire 1747. karta Persian Gulf1747
  46. Saudi King letter.Saudi King letter PERSIAN GULF
  47. ALKHALEEJ ALFARSI 1952.Saudi map of Persian Gulf
  48. Map of Iraq in Iraqi carpet 1970. Persian Gulf Iraqi carpet 1970.
  49. Basra bahrefars.turkey: BahreFars( Persian Gulf)
  50. Cairo street..A street in Cairo named Persian Gulf 1958
  51. Heinrich Kiepert. Imperia Persarum et Macedonum. 1903. Persian Gulf.
  52. Soulier, E.; Andriveau-Goujon, J. Anciens Empires Jusqua Alexandre. 1838.
  53. Map Pomponius Mela rotated.An 43 AD.Karata Persian Gulf
  54. Ptolemy Cosmographia 1467 – Arabian peninsula. Persian Gulf .
  55. Mappa di Eratostene. 194 BC Eratosthenes karta Persian Gulf
  56. Istakhri map 2.Regional – Persian Gulf Istakhri,1200
  57. Ottoman Asia (partial, 1893).1893 Karata Persian Gulf (Ajam)
  58. Saudi map of Persian Gulf 1952. الخلیج الفارسی.
  59. Map of Persial Gulf- Amsterdam-1640.Karata Persian Gulf 1640
  60. Map of the region bounded by the Saudi Peninsula, Red Sea. Jacob van Merus, 1680,Karata Persian Gulf  Amesterdam
  61. Regno di Persia con le notitie delle … Publication Date 1679 Scarce map extending from the Eufrate to the Indo.Showing major rivers, mountains and cities. From Il Mercurio, by De Rossi. 1679 .
  62. Perse Turquie Asiatique et Arabie old map Desnos 1766. Persian Gulf 
  63. Antique map La Perse Bellin 1764.Karata Persian Gulf  1764”’
  64. Persia Sive Sophorum regnum Old map Persia Merian 1638.  
  65. Jansson’s map of Persia..Amsterdam karta Persian Gulf1640
  66. Map of Asia in the shape of the mythical winged horse Pegasus.. 1581 Hannover Karata Persian Gulf
  67. 1732 Asia issued.. 1732 Guillaume Danet. Persian Gulf
  68. Map of Amsterdam1685.. Karata Persian Gulf  1700
  69. Detailed map of Asia..Nuremberg / 1744 karta Persian Gulf
  70. Important Jodocus Hondius…. Amsterdam 1620 karta Persian Gulf
  71. Published in Amsterdam.png by Nicholas Visscher the Elder.1670.
  72. Map of K. Johnston -1850-Edinburg.A.K. Johnston -1850-Edinburg
  73. Map of George Rollos 1770 London.
  74. Map of Guillaume de L’Isle – 1731- Paris.
  75. Map of J. Rapkin , Published by Tallis.-1851-london.1851-
  76. Location of and gulf by Janssonius, Joannes- 1640-Amsterdam.
  77. Map of Mercator, Belgium, 1578.Mercator, Belgium, 1578
  78. Map of Published by D’Apres de Mannevillette-1775-paris .
  79. Map of Robert- 1760- Paris. 1760- Paris .
  80. Map of The London Geographical Institute 1890, Published by George Philip & Son. 1890, Persian Gulf
  81. Map of V. Levasseur – Paris- 1838.V. Levasseur –
  82. Amsterdam J. Covens et C. Mortier,1720.Amsterdam 1720  Persian Gulf
  83. Strassbourg 1525 by Lorenz (Laurent) Fries.Strasbourg 1525 karta Persian Gulf
  84. Rigobert Bonne- 1771 Paris.Rigobert Bonne- 1771 Paris.
  85. Map of Nova Orbis Tabula In Lucem Edita, Wit.. Amsterdam-1680 ca Karata Persian Gulf
  86. Map of Typus Orbis A Ptol. Descriptus.-1542
  87. Map of Die beyden Halbkugeln.”’Die beyden Halbkugeln-Vienna-1790”’
  88. Mappemonde a l’usage du Roy Par Guillaume Delisle Premier. 1720 (Shows De Gama Land)
  89. Mappe Monde Carte Universelle de la Terre Dressee Sur les Relations les plus nouvelles.Karata Persian Gulf -1755”’
  90. Persia, Caspian Sea, done by ye Czar, and Part of Independent Tartary. 2700 Persian Gulf
  91. Middle East Antique map Babylon Assyriens Philippe 1787. Persian Gulf
  92. Map of Persia Kingdom Ormus Strait Hormuz Old plan Bellin 1756.
  93. Japanese Map of Saudi Arabia.Japanese karta Persian Gulf1874
  94. Brodersen, Kai. 2012. “Cartography.” In ”Geography in Classical Antiquity.” By Daniela Dueck, 99–۱۱۰٫ Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  95. Edson, Evelyn. 1993. “The Oldest World Maps: Classical Sources of Three Eighth Century Mappaemundi.” ”Ancient World” 24.2: 169-184.
  96. Fox, Michael, and Stephen R Reimer. 2008. ”Mappae Mundi: Representing the World and Its Inhabitants In Texts, Maps, and Images In Medieval and Early Modern Europe.” Edmonton, Alberta: Department of English and Film Studies, University of Alberta.
  97. Goffart, Walter. 2003. ”Historical Atlases: The First Three Hundred Years,

 1570–۱۸۷۰٫” Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

  1. Harwood, Jeremy, and A. Sarah Bendall. 2006. ”To the Ends of the Earth: 100 Maps That Changed the World.” Cincinnati, OH: David & Charles.
  2. Harvey, Paul D. A., ed. 2006. ”The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and their Context.” London: British Library.
  3. Shirley, Rodney W. 1983. ”The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps 1472-1700.” London: Holland Press.
  4. Talbert, Richard J. A., ed. 2000. ”Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World.” Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
  5. Wendt, Henry, John Delaney, and Alex Bowles. 2010. ”Envisioning the World: The First Printed Maps 1472–۱۷۰۰٫” Santa Rosa, CA: Sonoma County Museum.
  6. Woodward, David. 1985. “Reality, Symbolism, Time, and Space in Medieval World Maps.” ”Annals of the Association of American Geographers” 75.4: 510-21.
  7.       The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (253 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary, Institute du Monde Arabe,Paris and Tunisia University,2001 .
  8.        Tibbets,Gerald Randall,Arabian in early Maps,Naples,Italy,Falcon press, 1978.
  9.        A Guide to Antique Maps Collection of king Abdulaziz Public Library,Riyadh.
  10.        Atlas of the Arab World and the Middle East ; With an Introduction [entitled The Arab World] by C.F. Beckingham ,Macmillan, 1960
  11. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Ortelius, Netherlands, 1570–۱۶۱۲)
  12. Piri Reis Map (Ottoman Empire, 1570–۱۶۱۲)
  13. Mercator’s Atlas (1578)
  14. Atlas Novus (Blaeu, Netherlands, 1635–۱۶۵۸; ۱۶۴۵ edition at UCLA)
  15. Dell’Arcano del Mare (England/Italy, 1645–۱۶۶۱)
  16. Cartes générales de toutes les parties du monde (France, 1658–۱۶۷۶)
  17. Klencke Atlas (1660; world’s largest book)
  18. Atlas Maior (Blaeu, Netherlands, 1662–۱۶۶۷)
  19. Atlante Veneto (Coronelli, Venice, 1691)
  20. Britannia Depicta (London, 1720)
  21. Atlas Nouveau (Amsterdam, 1742)
  22. Cary’s New and Correct English Atlas (London, 1787)
  23. Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas (Germany, 1881–۱۹۳۹; in the UK as Times Atlas of the World, 1895)
  24. Atlas do Visconde de Santarem (Paris, 1841, 1842-1844, and 1849)
  25. Bosatlas (Netherlands 1877–present)
  26. Cedid Atlas (Istanbul, 1803)o
  27. Rand McNally Atlas (United States, 1881–present)
  28. Stielers Handatlas (Germany, 1817–۱۹۴۴)
  29. Atlante Internazionale del Touring Club Italiano (Italy, 1927–۱۹۷۸)
  30. Atlas Mira (Russia, 1937–present)
  31. Geographers’ A–Z Street Atlas (United Kingdom, 1938–present)
  32. Gran Atlas Aguilar (Spain, 1969/1970)
  33. Historical Atlas of China (Taiwan, 1980)
  34. The Historical Atlas of China (China, 1982)
  35. National Geographic Atlas of the World (United States, 1963–present)
  36. Pergamon World Atlas (1962/1968)
  37. Times Atlas of the World (United Kingdom, 1895–present)
  38. Dorling Kindersley Atlas of the World 1994–present
  39. Digital atlases
  40. Further information: Geographic information system, List of online map services, Web mapping, and Comparison of web map services
  41. TerraServer-USA/MSR Maps (1998)
  42. NASA World Wind (2003)
  43. Google Maps (2005)
  44.  North American Environmental Atlas (2005)

 ***Maps by following cartographer have also described Persian gulf:

  •      Maps by Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli
  •     Maps by Francisco Rosselli
  •           Maps by Juan de la Cosa
  •          Martin Waldseemuler
  •    Sebastian Munster
  •    Jamoco Gastaldi
  •    Girolamo Ruscelli
  •    Giovanni Antonio Magini
  •    Gerard Mercator
  •    Abraham Ortelius
  •     Frederick de Wit
  •     Nicolas Jansz. Visscher
  •     Christophoro Weigelio
  •    Guillaume de L> Isle
  •    Emanuel Bowen
  •     26Rigobert Bonne
  •     Isaac Tirion
  •    Tobias Conradi Lotteri
  •     Fielding Jr.Lucas
  •     Adam Olearius
  •    Engelbert Kaempfer
  •     Carsten Niehbur
  •     Petrus Bertius
  •     Pieter Van der Aa
  •    Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d>Anville
  •     Guillaume Nicolas Delahaye
  •    Aaron Arrowsmith
  •    Captain Ritchie
  •    Bartholomew R.B.
  •     Captain James Horseburgh
  •     A. Garnier
  •     George Percy Badger
  •    James Neele

۲٫۲٫ The Origin of Attempts to Distort the Name of Persian Gulf

According to many relevant studies, the origin of distortion dates back to 1960s, but whether the government of Britain or Arab countries first began the story requires further discussion. A group of researchers believe some Arab countries began to use the forged name with the spread of Pan-Arabism. The Arabism ideology seeks to unite the Arab world by certain principles and policies. Some other assert that Charles Belgrave and Roderick Oven, the British government agents, used the forged name “Arabic Gulf” in their books for the first time, after which it spread to Arab countries, and we do not encounter such name even in the books or writings of the Arabs, except for some historians and geographers calling the Red Sea “Arabian Gulf . In 1958, Abd al-Karim Qasim staged a coup in Iraq and claimed to be the leader of the Arab world, so he needed to propound the theory of foreign enemy in order to attract the Arab nations’ interest and attention. At that time, the Arab world led by the Egyptian colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser was engaged in a conflict with Israel [6]. By changing the names “Persian Gulf” and “Khuzestan”, Abdel Nasser resolved to introduce Iran as a new enemy to the Arab world in order to direct attention from Cairo to Bagdad. He used this political game with history and geography as a pretext for creating a division between the Arab nations and Iran. However, since the coup and violent policies of the colonels of Bagdad failed to interest Arabs, Abd al-Karim Qasim’s propaganda found no place among them too . Not only Kuwait, which used to be under the fear and political pressure of Bagdad, signed its contract of independence with Britain as “Al-khalij Al-Farsi” (Persian Gulf) in 1958, there have also been tens of deeds and maps published in Iraq which used the true name “Persian Gulf”